Other References and Resources

The World Bank is part of a growing community of practitioners, international organizations, development partners, foundations, NGOs, researchers, and others working to promote identification for sustainable development and provide relevant standards, recommendations, and resources. These materials—along with other references cited throughout this Guide—are listed in here alphabetically.

ADB. 2007. Legal Identity for Inclusive Development. Philippines: Asian Development Bank.

APEC. 2004. APEC Privacy Framework. Singapore: Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat.

Australian Government. 2019. Trusted Digital Identity Framework: Attribute Profile. Australian Government Digital Transformation Authority.

Cao, K. and Jain, A. K. 2015. "Learning Fingerprint Reconstruction: From Minutiae to Image." IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 104-117.

Cavoukian, A. 2011. “Privacy by Design: The 7 Foundational Principles. Implementation and Mapping of Fair Information Practices.”

CIS. 2019. Towards a framework for evaluation of Digital ID, 11 June 2019, Draft for Discussion. Center for Internet and Society, India.

Chadwick, R. 2014. The Right to Know and the Right Not to Know: Genetic Privacy and Responsibility. Cambridge University Press.

Chu, Z., Yuan, G., Zhang, X., and Han, L. 2012. "Fingerprint orientation reconstruction from minutiae points." Proceedings of the 10th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation, Beijing, pp. 4583-4587.

Council of Europe (CoE). 2018. Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data (Convention 108+).

Danezis, G. et al. 2015. Privacy and Data Protection by Design: From Policy to Engineering. European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA).

EC. 2017a. The New European Interoperability Framework: Promoting seamless services and data flows for European public administrations. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

EC. 2017b. Principles and guidance on eID interoperability for online platforms. eIDAS Observatory.

EU. 2015. Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2015/1502 of 8 September 2015 on setting out minimum technical specifications and procedures for assurance levels for electronic identification means pursuant to Article 8(3) of Regulation (EU) No 910/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council on electronic identification and trust services for electronic transactions in the internal market.

EU. 2016. General Data Protection Regulation 2016/679 (GDPR).

FICAM. undated. Streamline Identity Management Playbook. United States Federal Identity, Credential, and Access Management.

Gelb, A. and Clark, J. 2013a. Identification for Development: The Biometrics Revolution, CGD Working Paper 315. Washington, DC: Center for Global Development.

Gelb, A. and Clark, J. 2013b. Performance Lessons from India’s Universal Identification Program. CGD Policy Paper 020.

Gelb A., and Diofasi, A. 2018. Identification Revolution: Can Digital ID be Harnessed for Development? Washington, DC: Brookings.

Government of India. 2010. Guidelines for Usage of Digital Signatures in e-Governance, Version 1.0” (December 2010). Department of Information Technology Ministry of Communications and Information Technology.

GSMA. 2019. Exploring the Gender Gap in Identification. London, UK: GSMA.

Harbitz, M. and Kentala, K. 2013. Dictionary for Civil Registration and Identification. Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank.

ICAO. 2018. Traveler Identification Program (TRIP) Guide on Evidence of Identity. International Civil Aviation Organization.

ICAO Doc 9303:2015. Machine Readable Travel Documents.

IDB. 2011. Identification and Governance Policies: The Legal, Technical, and Institutional Foundations that Influence the Relations and Interactions of the Citizen with the Government and Society. Washington, DC: inter-American Development Bank.

IDinsight. 2018. State of Aadhaar Report, 2017-2018.

ISO/IEC. 2011. ISO/IEC 24760-1:2011 Information technology Security techniques A framework for identity management Part 1: Terminology and concepts.

ISO/IEC. 2011. ISO/IEC 29100:2011 Information technology — Security techniques — Privacy framework.

ISO/IEC. 2015. ISO/IEC 2382:2015 Information technology — Vocabulary.

ISO/IEC. 2017. ISO.IEC 2382-37:2017. Information technology — Vocabulary—Part 37: Biometrics.

ITU. 2010. ITU-T X.1252 Baseline identity management terms and definitions.

ITU. 2018. Digital Identity Roadmap Guide. International Telecommunication Union.

Joon Song, H et al. 2016. Korea: An integrated system of civil registration and vital statistics. Washington, DC: World Bank Group.

Kelly, M. and Satola, D. 2017. “The Right to Be Forgotten.” University of Illinois Law Review, Vol. 1.

Kindt, E.J. 2013. “Privacy and Data Protection Issues of Biometric Applications: A Comparative Legal Analysis.” Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.

Kuner, C. and Marelli, M eds. 2017. Handbook on Data Protection in Humanitarian Action. Switzerland: International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).

Malik, T. 2018. Malawi’s Journey Towards Transformation: Lessons from its National ID Project. Washington, DC: Center for Global Development.

NIST. 2015. Measuring Strength of Identity Proofing. Workshop: Applying Measurement Science to the Identity Ecosystem Version: 1, December 16, 2015.

NIST. 2017. SP 800-63:2017 Digital Identity Guidelines.

Nyst, C., Pannifer, S., Whitley, E., Makin, P. 2016. Digital Identity: Issue Analysis. Consult Hyperion.

OECD. 2013. The OECD Privacy Framework.

OECD. 2018. Toolkit for Protecting Digital Consumers: A Resource for G20 Policy Makers.

Open Society Justice Initiative and Namati. 2018. A Community-Based Practitioner’s Guide: Documenting Citizenship & Other Forms of Legal Identity. Washington, DC and New York, New York: Open Society Foundations and Namati.

OpenCRVS (open-source digital CRVS solution developed by Plan International).


OWI. 2017. “Don’t Believe the (Blockchain) Hype: The Definitive Primer on Identity and Blockchain.” One World Identity Labs.

OSCE/ODIHR. 2009. Guidelines on Population Registration. Warsaw: Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe’s Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR).

Perrin et al. 2015. Government Information Sharing Is Data Going Out of the Silos, Into the Mines? Independent research report commissioned by the Office of the Information and Privacy Commissioner of Alberta, Canada, Digital Discretion Inc.

Plan International. 2015. Civil Registration and Vital Statistics Digitization Guidebook.

Rakgoasi, S.D. et al. 2015. Botswana – Integration of Civil Registration and Vital Statistics and Identity Management Systems: Botswana Success Story. Washington, DC: World Bank Group.

UC Berkeley. Privacy Patterns.

UN. 1988. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, General Comment 16 on Article 17. United Nations Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights.

UNCITRAL. 2002. Model Law on Electronic Signatures with Guide to Enactment 2001. New York: United Nations.

UNDESA. 2014. Principles and Recommendations for a Vital Statistics System, Revision 3. New York, NY: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division.

UNHCR. 2003. Handbook for Registration: Procedures and Standards for Registration, Population Data Management and Documentation. United National High Commissioner for Refugees.

UNICEF. 2017. Birth Registration Estimates (Data).

WEF. 2016. Blueprint for Digital Identity. World Economic Forum.

World Bank. 2016a. Cloud Readiness Pilot Assessment Report. Washington, DC: World Bank.

World Bank. 2016b. World Development Report 2016: Digital Dividends. Washington, DC: World Bank Group.

World Bank. 2017. Toolkit on Combatting Cybercrime.

World Bank. 2018. Civil Registration and Vital Statistics e-learning (developed in collaboration with the Global CRVS Group).

World Bank and United Nations. 2017. Combatting Cybercrime: Tools and Capacity Building for Emerging Economies, Washington, DC: World Bank Group.

World Bank and World Health Organization (WHO). 2015. Global CRVS Scaling Up Investment Plan 2015-2024. Washington, DC: World Bank Group.

Whitley, E. A. 2018. Trusted Digital Identity Provision: GOV.UK Verify’s Federated Approach. Center for Global Development.

Whitley, E. A., and Hosein, G. 2010. Global Identity Policies and Technology: Do we Understand the Question?. Global Policy 1(2), pp. 209–215.

WHO. 2013. Resource Kit on strengthening CRVS for births, deaths and causes of death. Luxemburg: World Health Organization.;jsessionid=76F69E8009ECECBDD8616E66567F1770?sequence=1.