This Guide was drafted by Julia Clark for the World Bank’s Identification for Development (ID4D) Initiative under the leadership of Vyjayanti Desai and with significant contributions from World Bank staff and expert consultants, including Adam Cooper, Jonathan Marskell, Anita Mittal, James Neumann, David Satola, and Michiel van der Veen. Many others—including Jerome Buchler, Luda Bujoreanu, Nils Junge, Victoria Esquivel Korsiak, Knut J. Leipold, Anat Lewin, Vlad Manoil, Samia Melham, Anna Metz, Julian Najles, Robert Palacios, and Emmanuel Vassor—also provided important inputs and reviews.

This Guide draws extensively on existing ID4D publications—available at and detailed in Section IV of the Guide—and would not have been possible without the work of these previous authors. In particular, it builds upon the 2014 Digital ID Toolkit for Africa, which was prepared by Joseph J. Atick (ID4Africa) and Zaid Safdar (World Bank).

Finally, this Guide has benefited from reviews, feedback, and inputs from Alan Gelb (Center for Global Development), Thampy Koshy and his team (Ernst & Young), representatives of the Secure Identity Alliance (SIA), Sanjay Dharwadker (WCC), Tom Flemming (EBRD), Jeremy Grant (FIDO Alliance), Yesha Tshering Paul, Prakriti Singh and Amber Sinha (CIS, India), and Edgar Whitley (LSE).

This work is a product of the staff of the World Bank with external contributions. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed do not necessarily reflect the views of the World Bank, its Board of Executive Directors, or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work.